来源：http://www. 发布时间：2019-06-28 浏览：次
在设备（电机和驱动器）没有损坏的状况下，堵转了就是电机转矩不够了，在步进电机固定的状况下，影响转矩的主要要素有转速和电流，步进电机的特性是转速越高 力矩越小，电流越小 力矩越小 。
In the condition that the equipment (motor and driver) is not damaged, the blockage is that the motor torque is insufficient. In the condition of fixed stepping motor, the main factors affecting the torque are speed and current. The higher the speed, the smaller the torque and the smaller the current.
步进电机只可以由数字信号控制运转的，当脉冲提供应驱动器时，在过于短的时间里，控制系统发出的脉冲数太多，也就是脉冲频率过高，将招致步进电机堵转 。要处理这个问题，必需采用加减速的方法 。就是说，在步进电机起步时，要给逐步升高的脉冲频率，减速时的脉冲频率需求逐步减低 。这就是我们常说的“加减速”办法 。
Stepper motor can only be controlled by digital signals. When the pulse provides the driver, in a short period of time, the number of pulses emitted by the control system is too much, that is, the high pulse frequency will cause the stepper motor to block up. To deal with this problem, acceleration and deceleration must be adopted. That is to say, when the stepper motor starts, the pulse frequency needs to be gradually increased, and the pulse frequency needs to be gradually reduced when the stepper motor decelerates. This is what we often call "acceleration and deceleration".
步进电机转速度，是依据输入的脉冲信号的变化来改动的 。从理论上讲，给驱动器一个脉冲，步进电机就旋转一个步距角（细分时为一个细分步距角） 。实践上，假如脉冲信号变化太快，步进电机由于内部的反向电动势的阻尼作用，转子与定子之间的磁反响将跟随不上电信号的变化，将招致堵转和丢步 。所以步进电机在高速启动时，需求采用脉冲频率升速的办法，在中止时也要有降速过程，以保证明现步进电机精细定位控制 。加速和减速的原理是一样的 。下面就加速实例加以阐明：
The speed of stepper motor is changed according to the change of input pulse signal. In theory, when a pulse is given to the driver, the stepper motor rotates a step angle (subdivision is a step angle). In practice, if the pulse signal changes too fast, the magnetic response between the rotor and the stator will not follow the change of the electric signal due to the damping effect of the internal reverse electromotive force of the stepper motor, which will lead to blockage and loss of step. So when the stepper motor starts at high speed, it is necessary to adopt the method of pulse frequency rising and the process of deceleration when it stops, so as to ensure the fine positioning control of the stepper motor. The principle of acceleration and deceleration is the same. Following are examples of acceleration:
加速过程，是由根底频率（低于步进电机的直接起动更高频率）与跳变频率（逐步加快的频率）组成加速曲线（降速过程反之） 。跳变频率是指步进电机在根底频率上逐步进步的频率，此频率不能太大，否则会产生堵转和丢步 。加减速曲线普通为指数曲线或经过修调的指数曲线，当然也可采用直线或正弦曲线等 。运用单片机或者PLC，都可以完成加减速控制 。关于不同负载、不同转速，需求选择适宜的根底频率与跳变频率，才干够到达更佳控制效果 。指数曲线，在软件编程中，先算好时间常数存贮在计算机存贮器内，工作时指向选取 。通常，完成步进电机的加减速时间为300ms以上 。假如运用过于短的加减速时间，对绝大多数步进电机来说，很难完成步进电机的高速旋转 。
The acceleration process is composed of the base frequency (lower than the direct starting maximum frequency of the stepping motor) and the jump frequency (step-by-step acceleration frequency) to form the acceleration curve (the opposite of the deceleration process). The jump frequency refers to the frequency that the stepper motor progresses step by step in the fundamental frequency. This frequency should not be too large, otherwise it will cause stalling and step loss. Acceleration and deceleration curves are usually exponential curves or modified exponential curves, of course, straight lines or sinusoidal curves can also be used. Acceleration and deceleration control can be completed by using single chip computer or PLC. With regard to different loads and rotational speeds, it is necessary to select the appropriate base frequency and jump frequency so as to achieve the best control effect. Exponential curve, in software programming, first calculate the time constant stored in the computer memory, work point selection. Usually, the acceleration and deceleration time of stepping motor is more than 300 ms. If the acceleration and deceleration time is too short, it is difficult for most stepper motors to complete the high-speed rotation of stepper motors.
The sudden shutdown of the motor is not necessarily blocked. The motor has the highest speed. So does the stepper motor. When the speed exceeds the maximum speed of the stepper motor, the stepper motor will suddenly stop.
电流的大小会影响转矩，电流越大转矩越大，但是电机发热也就越大，因 而电流普通调整到转矩足够的状况下的更小电流 。假如这种状况下电机发热量还很大，就需求换大转矩电机了 。
The current will affect the torque. The bigger the current is, the bigger the torque is, but the higher the heat of the motor will be. Therefore, the current is generally adjusted to the minimum current under the condition of sufficient torque. If the heat of the motor is still very high in this situation, it needs to change the large torque motor.
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