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(1) Main magnetic pole
主磁极的作用是产生气隙磁场 。主磁极由主磁极死心和励磁绕组两局部组成 。死心普通用0.5mm～1.5mm厚的硅钢板冲片叠压铆紧而成，分为极身和极靴两局部，上面套励磁绕组的局部称为极身，下面扩宽的局部称为极靴，极靴宽于极身，既能够调整气隙中磁场的散布，又便于固定励磁绕组 。励磁绕组用绝缘铜线绕制而成，套在主磁极死心上 。整个主磁极用螺钉固定在机座上 。
The function of the main magnetic pole is to produce air gap magnetic field. The main pole consists of two parts: the main pole dead center and the excitation winding. Dead heart is usually made of 0.5mm-1.5mm thick silicon steel sheet laminated riveting, divided into polar body and pole boot two parts, the upper part of the excitation winding is called the pole body, the lower part of the widened pole boot is called the pole boot, pole boot is wider than the pole body, which can adjust the distribution of magnetic field in the air gap, and is convenient to fix the excitation winding. The excitation winding is made of insulated copper wire, which is wrapped on the main magnetic pole. The whole main magnetic pole is fixed on the seat with a screw.
(2) commutation pole
The function of commutation pole of DC motor is to improve commutation and reduce commutation spark between brush and commutator when motor is running. It is usually installed between two adjacent main magnetic poles. It consists of commutation pole dead center and commutation pole winding. The commutation pole winding is made of insulated wire, which is wrapped on the commutation pole dead center and the structure of main magnetic pole. The number of commutation poles is equal to that of the main magnetic poles.
The shell of the motor stator is called the base, which has two functions:
First, it is used to fix the main pole, commutation pole and end cover, and to support and fix the whole motor.
二是机座自身也是磁路的一局部，借以构成磁极之间磁的通路，磁统统过的局部称为磁轭 。为保证机座具有足够的机械强度和良好的导磁性能，普通为铸钢件或由钢板焊接而成 。
Secondly, the base itself is also a part of the magnetic circuit, which constitutes the magnetic path between the magnetic poles. The part through which the magnetic system passes is called the yoke. In order to ensure that the frame has sufficient mechanical strength and good magnetic conductivity, it is usually made of steel castings or welded by steel plates.
4) Brush Installation
电刷安装是用来引入或引出直流电压和直流电流的，电刷安装由电刷、刷握、刷杆和刷杆座等组成 。电刷放在刷握内，用弹簧压紧，使电刷与换向器之间有良好的滑动接触，刷握固定在刷杆上，刷杆装在圆环形的刷杆座上，互相之间必需绝缘 。刷杆座装在端盖或轴承内盖上，圆周位置能够调整，调好以后加以固定 。
Brush installation is used to introduce or draw DC voltage and current. Brush installation consists of brush, brush grip, brush rod and brush rod base. The brush is placed in the brush holder and pressed by spring, so that there is a good sliding contact between the brush and the commutator. The brush holder is fixed on the brush rod, and the brush rod is installed on the circular brush rod base, which must be insulated from each other. The brush rod base is mounted on the end cap or bearing inner cover, and the circumferential position can be adjusted and fixed after adjustment.
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